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From Fig. Only six papers exclusively focused tactical areas ( Alharbi, Wang, and Davy, ).

The exception to the aforementioned papers is Liotta, Stecca, and Kaihara (2015) and Zhang, Gong, Skwarczek, Yue, and You (2014) , which cover the 3 decision amounts, presenting a holistic perspective of SSCM. Nonetheless, none of these papers go over the three pillars of sustainability at the same time. Fig.

Selection of publications covering the distinctive final decision stages in SC. To fully grasp the principal interactions amongst final decision stages and sustainability pillars, an HCA analysis is carried out. 4 clusters were being obtained ( Desk ), in which the strategic conclusion degree for each se justifies a one cluster adopted by the strategic-tactical integration amounts demonstrating the authors’ most important attention to this variety of decisions, as previously mentioned.

These types of selections, when working with the sustainability pillars, have been targeted on the economic sustainability factor and most papers thought of the financial and the environmental areas collectively, while the social factor was primarily analyzed when addressing the earlier two pillars put together (forty two papers). This demonstrates a tendency to have a much more total view on the SSC the place the a few pillars are deemed simultaneously. The other clusters exhibit that the tactical factors, if not in conjunction with strategic conclusions, are rarely analyzed and operational conclusions are practically inexistent when addressing SSC. It is, even so, appealing to observe me as a writer essay that in relative phrases the variety of papers masking social areas is considerably bigger than in the former clusters. Also in these cases, the combination of economic and environmental aspects with each other is continue to the most important pattern.

Additionally, a absence of multi-final decision amount approaches is missing, as only two papers have addressed the 3 decision amounts, and in none of these papers considered the a few pillars of sustainability. These facts stage out that even more analysis is required to protect a entire SSC examination. On top of that, the authors have been naming SSC to SC conclusions that think about financial and environmental elements together, and hence have been “abusively” contacting green supply chain as SSC.

A holistic check out on SSC is however far from attain. Finally, the remedy of SSC addressing tactical and operational challenges is however an spot to further investigate when considering the utilization of OR approaches. Table 3 . Cluster assessment of final decision amount and sustainability pillars. Cluster 1 two 3 four Cluster sizing 59 one hundred forty five six 10 Decision stage Strategic – a hundred forty five – – Strategic-Tactical 59 – – – Tactical – – 6 – Tactical-Operational – – – 4 Operational – – – 3 Strategic-Operational – – – one Strategic-Tactical-Operational – – – 2 Sustainability pillars Financial twelve 17 2 one Economic-Environmental 35 eighty one three 5 Environmental – fifteen – – Environmental-Social – 1 one 1 Social – – – – Economic-Social 1 – – – Financial-Environmental-Social 11 31 – 3. Another vital part to grasp is linked to the variety of OR solutions explored to tackle the various degrees of decision.

To do so, an HCA investigation was carried out once more, whose effects are demonstrated in Desk 4 . Four clusters are identified. As predicted, the bigger cluster is the one that specials with strategic conclusions, followed by cluster 1 that encompasses all papers that merge decisions contemplating two to a few ranges.

These clusters demonstrate the utilization of a broad diversity of OR methods, missing, nonetheless, the expert’s method and demonstrating a obvious aim on the usage of optimization techniques. An fascinating uncover is that, when addressing only strategic problems (cluster 2), quite a few other OR techniques have been combined with optimization-primarily based techniques. So, SSC properties at the strategic level have been generally represented as a result of a mathematical formulation, but simulation, neural networks, knowledge analysis, selection evaluation, metaheuristics and studies have been applied to offer with the complex enter facts and resolution of the designed types.

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